The Hidden Member Of Periodic Table: The “Element Zero”

Chemistry has a total of 118 known elements in the periodic table. Most of the elements after atomic number 90 is artificial or man-made elements. The numbering of elements in periodic table is done by the number of protons present in the nucleus of a particular atom. For example, Hydrogen has one proton in the nucleus so its atomic number is 1, Helium has two protons in the nucleus thus its atomic number is 2 and so on.

The interesting thing is that the nucleus of an element not only contains protons but also neutrons. But according to the convention, the atomic number is measured as the number of protons present in a particular nucleus. So what will be the atomic number of an element which contain no proton but neutron?

The element zero is called ‘neutronium’ or ‘Neutrium’. The word neutronium is first suggested by Scientist Andreas von Antropoff in 1926, before the discovery of Neutron. Neutronium is found in the dense core of the Neutron Stars. The ‘element zero’ is a hot topic of research for the astrophysicist to solve the mysteries of many astronomical phenomenons. 

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[In Short] Carbon: Different Allotropes

Allotrope of an element means ‘different structural arrangement of that element’.

The popular allotropes of carbon are- Diamond, Graphene, Fullerene

There are many other forms of carbon also available like Lonsdaleite.

a) Diamond. b) Graphene. c) Lonsdaleite. d) C60. e) C540. f) C70. g) Amorphous Carbon. h) Single walled carbon nanotube.

(a) represents the structure of diamond, where each carbon is linked with four other carbon atoms forming a tetrahedron.

In diamond, each Carbon atom is sp3 hybridised.

(b) represents the structure of graphene. (There are four graphene units in the above picture) Graphene units piles up on one another to form graphite. That means graphite is a polymer of graphene.

Each carbon atom in graphene is sp2 hybridized. As a result of which there is one electron in nonbonding orbital. That is why it can conduct electricity (due to availability of free nonbonding electron).

Graphite consist of layers of graphene units. The distance between any two layer is 0.335 nano meter.

(c) represents Lonsdaleite. It is also called ‘Hexagonal Diamond’ because of its hexagonal close packing of arrangement. It forms when meteorites containing graphite strike the Earth. The great heat and stress of the impact transforms the graphite into diamond, but retains graphite’s hexagonal crystal lattice.

(g) represents amorphous form of carbon. Its property depends on the ratio of sp2 and sp3 hybridised carbon present in the material.

It lacks ordered arrangement of carbon.

d, e, f, h ——> fullerene

Fullerenes (also called buckyballs) are molecules of varying sizes composed entirely of carbon that take on the form of hollow spheres, ellipsoids, or tubes.

(h) can also be called as ‘carbon nanotubes’…


1. The surface of diamond is lipophillic (oil loving) and hydrophobic (water hating), which means it cannot get wet by water but can be in oil.

2. Graphite has a thermal conductivity upto 3500 °C

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[The Northeast India] Natural Resources: What Should Universities and Institutes Do?

​The North-Eastern region of India is rich in many useful natural resources. We have acres of tea gardens, dozens of oilfields and thousands of miraculous species of herbs in our vast landmass. We can study those resources and make available the reports to various industries, e.g., pharmaceutical, rubber, petroleum and energy.

We can set some new or modify our old laboratories of our universities and institutes to test the chemical samples. We need to know the chemistry involved in there to modify and enrich our products that are already available to the consumers. For example, the tea tree oil has magical antiseptic property. It can heal wounds and kill germs of many infamous viruses.

If each Universities and Institutions can transform themself into research and development centre for that particular region, then the students will be encouraged to take part in such research activities automatically.

[Explanation] What is Viscosity? 

Viscosity of a liquid implies the viscous force that tends to prevent the relative motion of a liquid layer compared to another layer in its contact.

The coefficient of viscosity ‘n’ is the numerical measure of viscosity, and it is defined as the frictional force, F per unit area per unit velocity gradient i.e., 

n= F/{A(dv/dx)}


A is the surface area and

dv/dx is the velocity gradient.
On addition of a solute having larger molecular size and increased intermolecular forces, the coefficient of viscosity of water increases. Thus, addition of a solute increases the viscosity of water. With increase in its concentration, the viscosity of the solution is increased further.

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​যাহার শক্তি শুশিয়া জয়িলা ভুবন,

সে আজ নিজ হাতে করিল তর্পণ।

তোমার সদৃশ স্বর্ণলতিকার আর নাই ঠাঁই,

যাইতে পারো আর কোনো বাঁধাধরা নাই।

সময় থাকিতে করিলা যারে হেলা;

নিজ চোখে দেখে নিও বিধাতার খেলা।।

[Explanation] Boiling Point Elevation: Cause & Effect


Boiling point elevation describes the phenomenon that the boiling point of liquid (a solvent) will be higher when a non volatile solute is dissolved in it than when it is pure.

Cause and Effect :

Boiling point elevation is the reduction of chemical potential of the liquid solvent as a result of the presence of a non-volatile solute. The physical basis of lowering of chemical potential is entropic.
In the absence of solute, the pure liquid solvent has an entropy that reflects its disorder. Its vapour pressure reflects the tendency of the liquid to change towards greater entropy, which can be achieved if the liquid is vaporized to form a more chaotic gas. When a solute is present, there is an additional contributions to the entropy of the liquid. Since there is already an additional randomness in the liquid, the system reaches its maximum entropy. When less liquid evaporates then the solute, and the randomness it causes is absent. The effect of the solute is a lower vapour pressure and hence a higher boiling point.
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O- Substituted benzene derivative and aliphatic derivative do not obey the Hammett equation. Why?

When a reaction occurs at a position ortho to the substituent inside polar effect, steric effect also operates owing to the close position of the reaction centre and the substituent, the steric interaction takes place. m- and p- position being far away from reaction centre, the m- and p- substituent doesn’t have any steric effect on it. They have polar influence on it. Owing to the steric effect, o-substituted benzene derivative do not show the linear relationship i.e., Hammett equation.
The aliphatic derivative do not obey the Hammett equation because C- chains are very flexible and have zigzag structure. The substituents experience steric interaction to the reaction centre even it is far away from the substituent. Thus, like o- substituted benzene derivative, aliphatic derivative also do not obey the Hammett equation.


The logarithm of the equilibrium constant of different reaction have a straight line, i.e., linear relationship. This implies that the substituent except their polar effect through changes of Potential Energy and no steric and entropies changes occur. Hence, Hammett equation is referred to have a Linear Free Energy Relationship (LFER).