Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials are a set of substances in which at least one dimension is less than approximately 100 nm which is approximately 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair.

Uses of Nanomaterials:

Nanomaterials are being used in a number of commercial consumer products such as stain-resistant and wrinklefree textiles, cosmetics, sun screens, paints etc. A few more examples are –

  1. There are novel UV blocking coatings on glass bottles which protect beverages from damage by sunlight.
  2. Nanoscale titanium dioxide is finding applications in cosmetics and self cleaning windows.
  3. Using butyl rubber nano-clay composites, long lasting tennis balls are made.

Classification of Nanomaterials:

  1. Zero dimensional spheres and clusters
  2. One dimensional nanofibres, wires and rods
  3. Two dimensional films, plates and networks
  4. Three dimensional nanomaterials.

Structural Features:

  • Large fraction of surface atoms
  • High surface energy
  • Spatial confinement
  • Reduced imperfections
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