Monthly Archives: January 2017

[In Short] Carbon: Different Allotropes

Allotrope of an element means ‘different structural arrangement of that element’.

The popular allotropes of carbon are- Diamond, Graphene, Fullerene

There are many other forms of carbon also available like Lonsdaleite.

a) Diamond. b) Graphene. c) Lonsdaleite. d) C60. e) C540. f) C70. g) Amorphous Carbon. h) Single walled carbon nanotube.

(a) represents the structure of diamond, where each carbon is linked with four other carbon atoms forming a tetrahedron.

In diamond, each Carbon atom is sp3 hybridised.

(b) represents the structure of graphene. (There are four graphene units in the above picture) Graphene units piles up on one another to form graphite. That means graphite is a polymer of graphene.

Each carbon atom in graphene is sp2 hybridized. As a result of which there is one electron in nonbonding orbital. That is why it can conduct electricity (due to availability of free nonbonding electron).

Graphite consist of layers of graphene units. The distance between any two layer is 0.335 nano meter.

(c) represents Lonsdaleite. It is also called ‘Hexagonal Diamond’ because of its hexagonal close packing of arrangement. It forms when meteorites containing graphite strike the Earth. The great heat and stress of the impact transforms the graphite into diamond, but retains graphite’s hexagonal crystal lattice.

(g) represents amorphous form of carbon. Its property depends on the ratio of sp2 and sp3 hybridised carbon present in the material.

It lacks ordered arrangement of carbon.

d, e, f, h ——> fullerene

Fullerenes (also called buckyballs) are molecules of varying sizes composed entirely of carbon that take on the form of hollow spheres, ellipsoids, or tubes.

(h) can also be called as ‘carbon nanotubes’…


1. The surface of diamond is lipophillic (oil loving) and hydrophobic (water hating), which means it cannot get wet by water but can be in oil.

2. Graphite has a thermal conductivity upto 3500 °C

Thanks For Reading 🙂

[The Northeast India] Natural Resources: What Should Universities and Institutes Do?

​The North-Eastern region of India is rich in many useful natural resources. We have acres of tea gardens, dozens of oilfields and thousands of miraculous species of herbs in our vast landmass. We can study those resources and make available the reports to various industries, e.g., pharmaceutical, rubber, petroleum and energy.

We can set some new or modify our old laboratories of our universities and institutes to test the chemical samples. We need to know the chemistry involved in there to modify and enrich our products that are already available to the consumers. For example, the tea tree oil has magical antiseptic property. It can heal wounds and kill germs of many infamous viruses.

If each Universities and Institutions can transform themself into research and development centre for that particular region, then the students will be encouraged to take part in such research activities automatically.